SERIES 60 VALVES, SPRINGS, GUIDES, INSERTS, SEALS AND ROTATORS
Four valves per cylinder, two each intake and exhaust, give the Series 60 engine excellent breathing and cooling characteristics. See Figure
Intake and Exhaust Valve Arrangements
Valves are made of heat-treated alloys, with heads and stems precision ground. Stem ends are hardened to minimize wear in contact with the valve rocker buttons.
Hard-alloy valve seat inserts, pressed into both intake and exhaust ports, can be replaced when worn to restore new engine performance.
Valves are positioned and aligned by replaceable valve guides pressed into the cylinder head. See Figure
1. Valve Guide
5. Valve Stem Oil Seal
2. Valve Spring Seat
6. Valve Spring
3. Valve Insert
7. Valve Rotator
8. Valve Keepers
Valve Guide and Related Parts
Replacement guides are reamed to close tolerances, and do not require reaming after installation.
All valves are retained by valve rotator spring caps and two-piece tapered valve locks.
Valve stem oil seals, installed on both intake and exhaust valves, provide controlled valve stem lubrication while limiting oil consumption.
New valve seat inserts are pre-ground and only need to be checked for concentricity after installation. Do not grind a new seat insert unless concentricity exceeds 0.05 mm (0.002 in.). Before grinding, be sure the valve guide is not excessively worn or bent, which could cause an erroneous concentricity reading. If the firedeck has been resurfaced, the valves will have to be seated deeper to restore the valve head recess depth to specification limits. Do not grind seat inserts for this purpose. Reduced thickness inserts are available that are 0.2540, 0.5080 and 0.7620 mm (0.010, 0.020 and 0.030 in.) shallower than standard. When a reduced thickness valve seat insert is used, a correspondingly thicker valve spring seat must be used. See Figure
, and see Figure
Standard Valve Seat Insert Thickness
When servicing exhaust valves, determine which type of exhaust valve is contained in the engine. If an exhaust valve must be replaced, use the same type that was removed. Do not mix exhaust valve types within an engine. Both exhaust valves are available from service stock for this purpose. Exhaust valve lash settings are affected by the type of exhaust valve that is contained in the engine. The valve lash settings and injector timing height are listed on the valve rocker cover. Refer to section
Minimum Valve Stem Diameter
Two types of exhaust valves are used on Series 60 engines. Pre-1991 model engines use a nickel-based alloy which can be identified by a forged "U" on the combustion face. 1991 model and beyond engines use an austenitic based alloy which can be identified by a forged "H" on the combustion face, and by a machined identification ring above the valve lock groove. See Figure
. The identification ring can be seen from the right side of the engine with rocker cover removed.
Series 60G exhaust valves for automotive engines are an inconnel based material. They are marked with a "J" on the face of the valve and a "J6-E-5" and a green dot on the top of the stem of the valve.
Exhaust Valve Identification
Beginning with engine model number 6R572448, distinguishing an intake valve from an exhaust valve can be identified by the different size dimples located under the head of the valve, rather then forged lettering. See Figure
and see Figure
. This applies to all Series 60
diesel applications with the exception of the marine engine.
Location of Dimples on Intake Valves
Repair or Replacement of Valves
To determine if repair is possible or replacement is necessary, perform the following procedure. See Figure
Flowchart for Repair or Replacement of Valves
Removal and Cleaning of Valve Spring (Cylinder Head Installed)
Perform the following steps for valve spring removal:
Fuel must be removed from the cylinder head fuel galleries prior to removing the injectors. Refer to section
Bar the engine over until the cylinder is at top-dead-center (TDC).
Insert the threaded portion of the valve spring compressor, J 35580
into the threaded inboard camshaft cap hole adjacent to the valve being worked on. See Figure
Installing Valve Spring Compressor
Position the spring compressor cage portion of the valve spring compressor directly over the valve spring to be compressed. Engage the dowel of the cage in the closest slot of the valve spring compressor handle.
Do not contact the valve with the compressor tool.
Compress the valve spring and remove the valve locks using a small magnet to prevent the locks from falling into the cylinder head oil return galleries.
Release the spring and remove the valve rotator and valve spring. If the valve stem oil seal is to be replaced, remove the seal and discard it.
On the other three valves it may be necessary to repeat these steps for cylinders being worked on. Refer to
and the following steps. Last, refer to
All valve spring or seal removal and replacement must be completed for each cylinder being serviced while the piston is at top-dead-center, before turning the crankshaft to work on another cylinder.
Removal and Cleaning of the Valve Spring (Cylinder Head Removed)
With the cylinder head assembly removed from the engine, remove the valve springs as follows:
Position the cylinder head, firedeck side up, on a turn over stand or supported on 102 x 102 mm (4 x 4 in.) wooden blocks on a workbench.
Insert the tool into valve guide from the firedeck side of the cylinder head. See Figure
Valve Guide Removal
Hold the tool vertical to the cylinder head and drive the valve guide until it is free of the cylinder head.
Clean the valve guide bore with bore brush, J 5437
(or equivalent), to remove all gum and carbon deposits.
Removal of Intake and Exhaust Valve Seat Insert
As the intake and exhaust valve seats are different in size, two different tools are required for removal. Use the cam-operated valve seat remover, J 23479-460A
, with collet, J 23479-100A
, to remove the larger intake valve seat insert. Use valve seat remover, J 23479-271
, with collet J 23479-29
to remove the smaller exhaust valve seat insert. See Figure
4. Valve Seat Insert Puller
2. Knurled Knob
6. Collet Lever
Valve Seat Insert Removal Tools
Remove the intake and exhaust valve seats as follows:
Place the cylinder head in a horizontal position with the valve seats facing up.
Using a new valve seat insert as a guide, turn the knurled knob on the end of the shaft to tighten and expand the collet until the valve seat insert will just slip off the collet. Refer to instructions supplied with the valve seat remover tool for correct tool operation.
Inspection of Valve
The valve stems must be free from scratches or scuff marks, and, the valve faces must be free from ridges or cracks. Some pitting of the valve face is normal, and is acceptable as long as no leak paths are evident. If leak paths exist, reface the valves or install new valves. If the valve heads are warped or the valve stem is bent, replace the valves.
If suitable for reuse, a valve may be refaced as long as the valve rim width, after refacing, is not less than 2.0 mm (0.078 in.) for intake valves and 2.2 mm (0.086 in.) for exhaust valves. Refer to section
1.A, for "Intake and Exhaust Valve" specifications which are listed in Table
and listed in Table
. See Figure
Intake and Exhaust Valve Face Refacing and Rim Width
Inspection of Valve Springs
Inspect the valve springs and replace any that are pitted or cracked. The entire spring should be inspected. When a broken spring is replaced, the rotator and valve locks for that valve and spring should also be replaced.
If the spring load is less than 280 N (63 lb) at a compressed length of 67.25 mm (2.648 in.), the spring should be replaced and the valve locks should be discarded.
Inspection of Valve Guides
Inspect the guides for cracks, chipping, scoring or excessive wear.
Measure the valve guide bore with a small hole gage or gage pin, and measure the valve stem diameter with a micrometer. Compare the measurements to determine valve stem clearance. If the clearance is greater than 0.152 mm (0.006 in.), the valve guide must be replaced.
Inspection of Valve Seat Inserts
Inspect valve seat inserts for wear, cracking or incorrect seat angle, which should be 31 degrees, standard valve seat insert thickness. See Figure
Installation of Intake and Exhaust Valve Seat Insert
Perform the following steps for intake and exhaust valve seat insert installation:
To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure.
Clean the seat insert counterbores and the new seat inserts with a suitable solvent and blow dry with compressed air.
If the concentricity is within 0.05 mm (0.002 in.), no grinding is required.
If the concentricity is not within 0.05 mm (0.002 in.), grind the seat only enough to true it up, being sure to lightly grind a full 360 degrees.
Valve seat insert grinding should be limited to light clean-up or concentricity truing. For a fine, accurate finish, the eccentric grinding method using tool J 7040-A
is recommended, because the grinding wheel contacts the insert at only one point at any time, and a micrometer feed permits controlled fine adjustment. See Figure
. Seats must be ground to a 31 degree angle.
Grinding Valve Seat Insert
The valve head recess depth from the firedeck is increased by valve and/or insert grinding. It should be checked with a sled gage, J 22273-01
(or equivalent). See Figure
Measuring Valve Head Recess Depth
If the diesel intake exhaust valve head recess depth is not between 1.4 to 1.8 mm (0.055-0.071 in.), the valve and seat must be replaced.
If the gas intake valve head recess depth is between 0.79 to 1.17 mm (0.031-0.046 in.), the valve and seat are correctly installed.
If the gas exhaust valve head recess depth is not between 0.976-1.4 mm (0.030-0.053 in.), the intake 0.79-1.17 mm (0.031 -0.046 in.) valve and seat must be replaced for the Series 60G engine.
After light clean-up, thoroughly clean the valve seat with fuel oil and blow dry with compressed air. Check seat-to-valve face contact by applying a light coat of Prussian Blue (or equivalent) to the valve seat land. Insert the valve in the guide and "bounce" the valve head on the seat insert without rotating the valve. A full 360 contact line should appear approximately centered on the valve face.
Installation of Valve Guide
Perform the following steps for valve guide installation:
Valve guides are not replaceable on natural gas or heat exchanger-cooled pleasure craft marine engines.
Start the chamfered end of the valve guide into the cylinder head from the top. See Figure
Valve Guide Installation
Insert the driver into an air chisel. Insert the driver into the valve guide limiting sleeve J 33191-A
and install this assembly over the valve guide. Drive the guide into the cylinder head until the driver bottoms in the limiting sleeve. See Figure
Valve Guide Installation
Properly used, the installer ensures the correct protrusion of the valve guide from the cylinder head of 37.75 mm (1.486 in.).
Installation of Valve, Spring, Seal and Rotator
Perform the following steps for valve installation:
Position the cylinder head vertically on the overhaul stand. Lubricate the valve stems with clean engine lubricating oil and slide them into their respective valve guides and against the valve seats. If reusing valves, install them to their original positions.
Install the valve spring seat over the valve guide. Install the valve stem oil seals using valve stem oil seal installation tools. See Figure
1. Valve Stem Seal Installer
4. Valve Guide
2. Oil Seal Protector Cap
3. Valve Spring Seat
6. Valve Stem Oil Seal
Valve Stem Oil Seal Installation Tools
Check the length of the plastic seal protector cap relative to the lock groove on the valve stem. If the seal protector cap extends more than 1.6 mm (1/16 in.) beyond the groove, trim off the excess length of the cap. See Figure
Ensure all valve spring seats have been installed before the valve stem seal is installed.
The valve stem oil seal may be installed with or without oil. Push the seal over the protector. See Figure
The valve stem oil seal on the natural gas engine has a larger inside diameter than the diesel engine. The seal portion of the natural gas oil seal is black in color.
Valve Stem Oil Seal Installation
Push the seal down on the valve stem using the seal installer, J 39109
, while holding the valve head against the seal. See Figure
Valve Stem Oil Seal Installer
When the installer tool contacts the cylinder head, the seal is correctly positioned. Be sure the installer is square against the cylinder head. Remove the seal installer and protector cap.
Install the valve spring and rotator. See Figure
. If reusing parts, install them to their original positions.
1. Valve Locks
4. Valve Stem Oil Seal
2. Valve Rotator
5. Valve Guide
3. Valve Spring
6. Valve Spring Seat
Valve Spring and Related Parts
Using the valve spring compressor tool, J 8062
, compress the valve spring only as much as required to install the valve locks. After installing the valve locks, rap the end of the valve stem sharply with a plastic mallet to seat the valve locks.
Always install new valve stem locks when installing valves.
Be sure the valve rotator is properly centered and aligned to avoid scoring the valve stem. Do not compress the spring any more than necessary to install the locks, to avoid damaging the oil seal.
After all of the valves are installed, check the spring opening pressure on each valve using spring load gage. See Figure
Checking Valve Spring Load
Note the gage reading when the valve just starts to unseat. The force required to unseat the valve must not be less than 280 N (63 lb).
Remove the cylinder head from the overhaul stand and install it on the engine. Refer to section
Install the camshaft and rocker arm assemblies. Lightly lubricate the overhead assemblies with clean engine oil. Refer to section
Close any drain cocks that were opened and fill the cooling system. Refer to section
. Purge the air from the system using the vent in the thermostat housing. Complete filling of the cooling system is essential for proper engine operation.
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.
If operating an engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.
Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system.