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SERIES 60 CYLINDER HEAD

The Series 60 cylinder head combines intake and exhaust valve porting and fuel injector seats with water jacketing to cool the ports, injectors and combustion chamber area. See Figure 20025 . ‪

Cylinder Head Assembly and Mating Components

With the overhead camshaft design, the cylinder head assembly includes: ‪

  • Cylinder head
  • Valve and injector operating mechanism
  • Injector, valve guide and related parts
  • Camshaft and camshaft bearings

The nested roller follower type rocker arms transmit camshaft motion directly to the valves and injectors. See Figure 20026 . ‪

1. Roller Follower ‪

4. Exhaust Valve Rocker Arm ‪

2. Injector Rocker Arm ‪

5. Camshaft ‪

3. Intake Valve Rocker Arm ‪

Cylinder Head Assembly

The nested roller follower type rocker arms transmit cam motion directly to the valves. See Figure 27847 . ‪

1. Roller Follower ‪

3. Exhaust Valve Rocker Arm ‪

2. Intake Valve Rocker Arm ‪

4. Camshaft ‪

5. Spacer ‪

Cylinder Head Assembly (Series 60G Engine)

The porting within the cylinder head is cross-flow, with intake and exhaust ports on opposite sides for minimum restriction and maximum exposure to coolant flow. Four valves are used per cylinder, two intake and two exhaust. See Figure 20027 . ‪

Intake and Exhaust Valve Porting

Replaceable valve guides, valve spring seats, valve stem seals, valve rotators and valve seat inserts are used on all valves. See Figure 20028 . ‪

1. Valve Guide ‪

5. Valve Stem Oil Seal ‪

2. Valve Spring Seat ‪

6. Valve Spring ‪

3. Valve Seat Insert ‪

7. Valve Rotator ‪

4. Valve ‪

8. Valve Keepers ‪

Valve Guides and Related Parts

Copper injector tubes extending through the cylinder head water jacket are required for the fuel injectors. The tubes are directly exposed to the coolant. An O-ring seals the injector tube upper end in the recess. The lower end of the injector tube must be expanded and flared during the installation process to contain a tight fit in the firedeck bore. A beveled seat machined in the tube provides a compression-tight seal when the injector is seated, as well as affording effective heat transfer facilitating injector cooling. Refer to section . ‪

Fuel galleries machined into the head supply fuel under fuel pump pressure to all injectors, and excess fuel is returned to the fuel tank. The fuel gallery outlet (restricted) fitting is installed in the rear of the cylinder head. See Figure 20029 . ‪

Fuel Gallery Inlet and Outlet Fittings

Repair or Replacement of Cylinder Head

To determine if repair is possible or replacement is necessary, perform the following procedure. See Figure 21690 . ‪

Flowchart for Repair or Replacement of Cylinder Head

Removal and Cleaning of Cylinder Head

Because optional and accessory equipment varies with the engine application, this procedure covers only the basic engine. If the engine is equipped with accessories that affect cylinder head removal, note the mounting details of each to assure correct installation at reassembly. ‪

Remove the cylinder head as follows: ‪

  1. Drain the cooling system. Refer to section .
  2. Disconnect the exhaust pipe at the turbocharger. Refer to section .
  3. Remove the air cleaner and charge air cooler ducting from turbocharger and intake manifold. Refer to section and refer to section .
  4. Disconnect the turbocharger coolant supply (if water-cooled), oil supply and drain lines, and remove the turbocharger if necessary. See Figure 20030 .

    1. Elbow, Oil Drain Tube ‪

    10. Connector, Oil Supply Tube ‪

    2. Bolt, Mounting Bracket ‪

    11. Tube Assembly, Turbo Oil Supply ‪

    3. Bolt, Oil Drain Tube Clip ‪

    12. Clip, Oil Supply Tube ‪

    4. Tube, Turbo Oil Drain ‪

    13. Bolt, Oil Supply Tube Clip ‪

    5. Bolt, Oil Drain Tube Mounting ‪

    14. Connector, Oil Supply Tube (to turbocharger) ‪

    6. Gasket, Turbo Oil Drain Tube ‪

    15. Gasket, Turbo Exhaust Inlet ‪

    7. Nut, Turbo Mounting ‪

    16. Clip, Oil Drain Tube ‪

    8. Washer, Turbo Mounting ‪

    17. Bracket, Oil Drain Tube Clip Mounting ‪

    9. Turbocharger Assembly ‪

    18. Nut, Oil Drain Tube Clip ‪

    Turbocharger Oil Lines

  5. On pleasure craft marine engines, remove water-cooled charge air cooler from cylinder head. See Figure 36033

    1. Hose ‪

    8. Gasket ‪

    2. Elbow ‪

    9. CAC Mixer ‪

    3. Gasket ‪

    10. Housing Lower ‪

    4. Sleeve ‪

    11. Sensor ‪

    5. Seal Ring ‪

    12. Seal Ring ‪

    6. Bolt ‪

    13. Air Temperature Sensor ‪

    7. Housing Upper ‪

    14. Bracket ‪

    15. Bolt ‪

    Intake Manifold and Related Parts (Series 60 Heat Exchanger-Cooled Pleasure Craft Marine Engine)

  6. Seal the turbocharger compressor inlet and discharge with covers or masking tape. Plug the oil supply fitting in the turbocharger housing.
  7. Remove and inspect the exhaust manifold if necessary. Refer to section and refer to section . See Figure 27850 , and see Figure 37020 .

    1. Exhaust Manifold ‪

    2. Heat Shield ‪

    Exhaust Manifold (Series 60G Engine)

    Exhaust Manifold (Series 60 Commercial Marine Engine)

  8. Remove and inspect the intake manifold. Refer to section and refer to section . See Figure 20410 for all diesel except pleasure craft marine. See Figure 36033 for pleasure craft marine and see Figure 27856 for natural gas.

    1. Air Inlet ‪

    6. Air Temperature Sensor ‪

    2. Short Bolt (2) ‪

    7. Turbo Boost Pressure Sensor Bolt (2) ‪

    3. Intake Manifold Gasket (3) ‪

    8. Turbo Boost Pressure Sensor ‪

    4. Cylinder Head ‪

    9. O-ring ‪

    5. Manifold Bolt (7) ‪

    10. Intake Manifold ‪

    Intake Manifold and Related Parts (All Diesel Except Heat Exchanger-Cooled Pleasure Craft Marine)

    1. Intake Manifold ‪

    5. Pipe Plug ‪

    2. Intake Manifold Inlet ‪

    6. Bolt ‪

    3. Intake Manifold Gasket ‪

    7. Air Temperature Sensor ‪

    4. Cylinder Head ‪

    8. Turbo Boost Pressure Sensor ‪

    Intake Manifold and Related Parts (Natural Gas)

  9. Open the drain cock location at the bottom of the thermostat housing to allow the coolant in the housing to drain.
  10. Disconnect radiator or heat exchanger, bypass pipe and hose clamps, and remove the thermostat housing. Refer to section and see Figure 20033 .

    1. Thermostat (2) ‪

    6. Bypass Tube ‪

    2. Pipe Plug ‪

    7. Thermostat Housing ‪

    3. Bolts, Thermostat Housing-to-Cylinder Head (4) ‪

    8. Drain Cock ‪

    4. Hose, Coolant ‪

    9. Seals, Thermostat Housing (2) ‪

    5. Hose Clamps (2) ‪

    10. Cylinder Head ‪

    Thermostat Housing Removal

  11. Remove, disassemble, and inspect the valve rocker cover. Refer to section , (one-piece), refer to section , (two-piece), refer to section , (three-piece) for removal. Refer to section for disassembly, and refer to section for inspection.
  12. Remove Jake Brakes, if equipped. Refer to section .
  13. Remove rocker arm assemblies. Refer to section .

    Note: On heat exchanger-cooled pleasure craft marine engines the heat exchanger must be removed before the camshaft can be disassembled from the engine. Refer to section .

  14. Remove the camshaft. Refer to section .

    Note: Using the camshaft gear pilot tool, J 35906 , pull the camshaft gear and thrust plate forward in the gear case until there is approximately a 6.35 mm (1/4 in.) gap between the cylinder head and the diamond-shaped camshaft thrust plate seal when removing the cylinder head. See Figure 20261 .

    Positioning Camshaft Thrust Plate

  15. Inspect the rocker arm assemblies and camshaft lobes. Refer to section , and refer to section .
  16. Disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet lines at the rear of the cylinder head. See Figure 20343 .

    Removing Fuel from Cylinder Head Internal Passages

    EYE INJURY

    To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure.

  17. Blow low pressure compressed air into the inlet fitting for 20 to 30 seconds or until all of the fuel is purged from the cylinder head.
  18. Disconnect the injector wire harness at each injector. Refer to section .
  19. Remove the harness mounting flange from the rear of the cylinder head and carefully remove the harness from the head by pulling the harness through the hole in the cylinder head. See Figure 20029 .

    NOTICE:

    To avoid possible damage to the injector spray tips, remove the injectors before lifting the head from the block. If the injectors are not removed, handle the head carefully when it is off the block and support the head fire deck on wooden blocks. ‪

  20. Remove the fuel injectors. Refer to section .

    Note: Fuel must be removed from the cylinder head fuel galleries prior to removing the injectors.

  21. Remove the gear case stabilizer bracket at the right and/or left front corner of the head.
  22. Remove the head bolts and install the cylinder head lifter bracket, J 35641-A , using the bolt hole at the inboard center, No. 3 cam cap and two tapped Jake Brake bolt holes. See Figure 20035 .

    Cylinder Head Lift Bracket Removal

  23. Attach a suitable lifting hook to the eyelet in the lift bracket, and lifter the cylinder head off the engine. See Figure 20036 .

    Cylinder Head Removal

  24. Drain the engine lubricating oil, refer to section , to remove any coolant that may have drained into the oil pan when the water jacket was opened. Remove any coolant from the cylinder bores.

Cleaning of Cylinder Head

Clean the cylinder head as follows: ‪

  1. Keep parts segregated according to original position to assure proper reassembly, if parts are to be reused.
  2. Remove all threaded plugs.
  3. Steam clean the cylinder head once it has been stripped.
  4. If coolant passages are heavily coated with scale, remove the injector tubes and cup plugs, refer to section . Clean the head in a descaling bath, refer to section .

    EYE INJURY

    To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure.

  5. Clean the camshaft and camshaft bearings, valves, springs, valve rotators and rocker shafts in fuel oil and blow dry with compressed air.
  6. Clean the rocker arm assemblies.
Inspection of Cylinder Head

The following steps must be performed before inspecting the cylinder head: ‪

  1. Replace the plugs removed for cleaning. If the old plugs are reused, coat the plugs with Loctite PT-7260 , pipe sealant with Teflon, or equivalent.

    Note: If both front fuel galley plugs have been removed, it will be necessary to replace both plugs.

  2. If injector tubes have been removed, install new injector tubes. Refer to section .
  3. Install new cup plugs using a good grade non-hardening sealant such as Loctite 620 or equivalent.
  4. Perform the following tests for cylinder head inspection.
    1. Pressure test, refer to section .
    2. Firedeck straightness test, refer to section .
Pressure Testing of Cylinder Head

Perform the following steps to pressure test the cylinder head: ‪

  1. Install the test strips (part of cylinder block pressure test kit, J 36223 ) to the firedeck on the cylinder head. See Figure 20037 .

    Cylinder Head Pressure Test Equipment Installation

  2. Insert the cylinder head bolts through the cylinder head and test strips. Attach and torque the nuts (supplied in J 36223 ) to 14 Nm (10 lbft).
  3. Install the thermostat opening cover plate, and gasket to the cylinder head using the bolts provided with the cover plate. See Figure 20038 .

    Thermostat Opening Cover Plate Installation

  4. Install dummy fuel injectors, to the injector bores to assure proper seating of the fuel injector tubes. See Figure 20039 .

    Dummy Fuel Injector Installation

  5. Install the fuel injector crabs and hold-down bolts. Torque the bolts to 58-66 Nm (43-49 lbft). See Figure 20039 .
  6. Attach an air hose to the fitting on the thermostat opening cover plate.
  7. Apply 207 kPa (30 lb/in.2 ) air pressure to the cylinder head and immerse the head in a water bath heated to 82-93C (180-200F).
  8. Leave the head in the bath for at least 20 minutes to heat thoroughly, while watching for bubbles indicating a crack or leak.
    1. If an injector tube leaks, replace tube(s). Refer to section for removal and refer to section for installation of new injector tube.
    2. If a cracked cylinder head is detected, replace the cylinder head. Refer to section .
Inspection and Rework for Firedeck Straightness

The large mass and length of the head casting may contain longitudinal warp after it is unbolted and removed from the engine block. At the time of factory manufacture, the longitudinal warp is normalized by using a fixture and clamping the casting during machining. The casting is placed in a fixture and clamped from its locating surfaces (datums). When unclamped, the head casting resumes its original shape until it is bolted and tightened to the engine block. ‪

Inspect the bottom (firedeck) of the cylinder head for straightness as follows: ‪

  1. Use a heavy, accurate straight-edge and feeler gages to check for transverse and longitudinal warpage. See Figure 20040 .

    Checking Firedeck Straightness

  2. Also, check for longitudinal warpage in five places and transverse warpage in 12 places, indicated as A through L in the next illustration. See Figure 20041 .

    Cylinder Head Measurement Locations

  3. The natural warp contained in the casting must be considered when inspecting firedeck straightness with the head unbolted and unclamped. Natural warpage is not a cause for correction. The firedeck (unclamped) must be straight within 0.279 mm (0.011 in.) front-to-rear and 0.076 mm (0.003 in.) side-to-side. Cylinder head specifications are listed in Table .

If the cylinder head flatness is outside of the specifications, Detroit Diesel Corporation recommends replacing the cylinder head. ‪

Verification of Countersink Geometry

To verify countersink geometry, perform the following steps. ‪

  1. Install new injector tubes. Refer to section .
  2. Place valves into proper location and check to be sure that valve heads are recessed from the firedeck surface by at least 1.4-1.8 mm (0.055 -0.071 in.). Listed in Table . See Figure 20044 . If not, reduced-thickness valve seat inserts must be installed. Refer to section .

    Valve Head-to-Cylinder Head Measurement

Inspection and Reworking of Head Bolt Counterbore

To assure clean and non-brinnelled cylinder head bolt counterbores, use J 38189 to resurface the head bolt washer area. ‪

The procedure and steps for proper use of the tool are as follows: ‪

NOTICE:

There must be no space between the bottom of the cylinder head and the table top to properly resurface the counterbores. ‪

  1. Place the cylinder head on a solid flat surface (preferably a steel table top) that completely covers the bottom of head.

    NOTICE:

    Proper use of the J 38189 is important. Failure to use J 38189 properly may result in an incorrect counterbore depth. ‪

  2. Protect the valve springs and injector counterbore to keep any loose metal shavings from getting into valve springs and counterbore during cutting operation.
  3. With cylinder head on a flat surface using the 1/8 in. hex wrench supplied with tool, loosen the stop collar and cutter to permit sliding on pilot.
  4. Starting at the front of the cylinder head, place the pilot of the cutter into a cylinder head bolt hole until the pilot contacts the flat surface beneath the cylinder head.
  5. Allow the cutter to contact the counterbore surface. Lock the stop collar while against the cutter. The cutter now will resurface the counterbore 0.508 mm (0.020 in.).
  6. Remove the tool and place a 0.020 in. feeler gage between the cutter and the locked stop collar.
  7. With feeler gage in place, lock the set screw of the cutter, then remove the feeler gage and loosen the set screw on the stop collar and slide it down tight against the cutter and retighten.

Perform the following steps to resurface the counterbore 0.508 (0.020 in.): ‪

  1. Using a drill motor with a 1/2 in. chuck and a maximum of 450 r/min and a suitable cutting oil to prolong the life of the cutter and to lubricate the pilot turning in bolt hole,
  2. Apply a moderate pressure on the drill motor, continue cutting operation until pilot bottoms on flat surface and then do not stop drill motor until after being lifted from cutting surface. This is to eliminate surface marks.

    Note: The J 38189 tool pilot has a shoulder stop that will not allow the cutter to remove material in excess of the Detroit Diesel Corporation specifications.

  3. If some of the bolt holes do not clean up completely, continue resurfacing remaining holes, repeating the operation in. 0.005 in. increments. This will clean up any holes that may not have cleaned up completely during the first cut.
  4. After all counterbores have been resurfaced, remove any loose cutting chips.
  5. Steam clean the complete cylinder head.
  6. After steam cleaning, inspect the cylinder head for any remaining chips.
  7. Reinstall the cylinder head assembly, using 38 of the new ground head bolt washers.

Assembly of Cylinder Head

Perform the following steps for cylinder head assembly: ‪

EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure.

NOTICE:

If the cylinder head is to be replaced, the new head must be thoroughly cleaned before installation to remove all rust and preventive compound, especially from the fuel and oil galleries. This can be done by immersion in a bath of fuel oil or mineral-spirits-based solvent and scrubbing out all openings with a soft bristle brush. When clean, blow the head dry with compressed air. ‪

  1. Install new precoated pipe plugs or coat the used plugs with pipe sealant with Teflon, PT-7260 , or equivalent. Refer to section 1.A, "Engine Plug and Dowel Charts" for specifications.
  2. Install all of the required cup plugs using a good grade of non-hardening sealant, such as Loctite 620 or equivalent, on the cup plugs. Use cup plug installation tool set, J 35653 . Refer to section 1.A, "Engine Plug and Dowel Charts" for specifications.
  3. Ensure that all cup and pipe plugs on the front face of the cylinder head are flush or below the surface.
  4. Install valve guides and seats, valves, valve stem seals, valve springs and rotators. Refer to section and refer to section .

Installation of Cylinder Head

Perform the following steps for cylinder head installation: ‪

  1. Ensure piston domes and the cylinder head and cylinder block firedeck surfaces are clean and free of foreign matter. Inspect the head bolt holes in both block and head for the presence of oil, water, dirt, or damaged threads, clean or retap as necessary.

    Note: Effective with engine serial number 06R0766277 Series 60 engines will use a new cylinder head gasket. The new gasket will be identified with a new part number and is a darker shade of gray with a woven appearance. The new gasket must be used with the new style cylinder head bolts.

  2. Position the head gasket on the block and install cylinder head guide studs, J 35784 , at front and rear of the block. See Figure 20045 .

    Cylinder Head Guide Studs

  3. Lift the head into position with lift bracket, J 35641 . See Figure 20036 . Lower it into place over the guide studs, J 35784 , until it seats on the block deck dowels. See Figure 20045 .

    Cylinder Head Installation

  4. Remove the guide studs.

    NOTICE:

    If gasket part number 23530421 is being used, the cylinder head bolts must not be reused. Failure to install new style bolts when using this gasket may result in improper clamp load, which could cause gasket failure and severe engine damage. ‪

  5. Install the head bolts with special hardened washers, lubricating the threads and bolt-head contact areas with a small amount of International Compound #2, or equivalent.
  6. For engines built before September 2002 torque the head bolts to 250-285 Nm (185-210 lbft) in the following sequence. See Figure 20046 .

    For engines built after September 2002 a new style cylinder head bolt will be used for all Series 60 Off-Highway and On-Highway engines. This bolt may or may not be identified with white paint. The new bolt will be identified with a groove on top of bolt. See Figure 42924 . Torque the new head bolts to 298 Nm (220 lbft). There is no change to the procedure other than the new torque value. The new head bolt can be used with the former cylinder head gaskets, the former head bolts cannot be used with the new head gasket. Former and new bolts must not be mixed.

    Cylinder Head Bolt Tightening Sequence

    NOTICE:

    The white paint identification for the new head bolts may or may not be applied to the bolt head. ‪

    Bolt Identification For Series 60 Engines Built After September 2002

    NOTICE:

    Failure to repeat the cylinder head bolt torque tightening sequence can result in some head bolts losing their torque when others are tightened resulting in insufficient clamp load. ‪

  7. Repeat the torque sequence to verify all of the head bolts are torqued to specification.

    NOTICE:

    The hemispherical portion of the injector hold-down crab washers must be installed facing the crab (pointing down) in order to prevent damage to the washers. See Figure 20047 . ‪

  8. Visually inspect each injector hole tube to ensure they are clean. Install the fuel injectors. Refer to section . Be sure the injector hold-down crabs are clear of the valve and injector springs.

    Injector Hold-Down Crab Washer Installation

  9. Install the clamp bolts with hemispherical washers, torque to 58-66 Nm (43-49 lbft).
  10. Install the camshaft. Refer to section .

    Note: If a cylinder head other than the one removed from the engine, or if a resurfaced cylinder head is being installed, the three nuts retaining the adjustable idler gear must be loosened before installing and torquing the camshaft drive gear retaining bolt.

    NOTICE:

    The camshaft drive gear-to-adjustable idler gear lash must be measured/adjusted before the rocker arm shaft assemblies are installed. ‪

  11. Measure and adjust the camshaft drive gear-to-adjustable idler gear lash. Refer to section
  12. Install the rocker arm shaft assemblies. Refer to section .
  13. Install Jacob's Brake assemblies (if equipped). Refer to section .
  14. Feed the injector harness wires through the opening at the rear of the cylinder head. Secure the harness mounting flange to the cylinder head by torque the bolts to 10-15 Nm (7-11 lbft).
  15. Connect the injector harness wires to their respective injectors. Refer to section .

    NOTICE:

    Bolts attaching brackets to the gear case are torqued first then torque the bolt(s) to the cylinder head next. ‪

  16. Install the gear case stabilizer bracket at the right and/or left front corner of the head. Refer to section .
  17. Install the thermostats and seals to the thermostat housing. Refer to section .
  18. Clean the coolant outlet surfaces of the head and thermostat housing.
  19. With the thermostats seated in the housing counterbores, install the housing to the cylinder head, torque the housing bolts to 58-73 Nm (43-54 lbft). Connect the radiator or heat exchanger and bypass hose couplings and vent line.
  20. Remove all traces of the old gasket from the cylinder head and exhaust manifold joint surfaces. Install the exhaust manifold with new gaskets. Refer to section .
  21. Clean the exhaust manifold and turbocharger joint surfaces and install the turbocharger with a new gasket. Refer to section . If turbocharger is water cooled, connect coolant supply and return lines.
  22. Fill and vent the cooling system. Refer to section . Fill the engine lubrication system. Refer to section .
  23. Connect the exhaust and air-to-air cooler air ducting and install the air cleaner or air separator.
  24. Install any other components that were removed and fill with the required fluids, as recommended. Refer to OEM guidelines.

    PERSONAL INJURY

    Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.

    • Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.
    • If operating an engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.
    • Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system.
  25. Start the engine and check for fuel, coolant or oil leaks. Keep the engine running while you check.
  26. Shut down the engine.