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SERIES 55 FUEL

The quality of fuel is a very important factor in obtaining satisfactory engine performance, long engine life, and acceptable exhaust emission levels. The Series 55 engine was designed to operate on most diesel fuels marketed today. In general, fuels meeting the properties of ASTM Designation D 975 (Grades 1-D and 2-D) have provided satisfactory performance. The ASTM D 975 specification, however does not in by itself adequately define the fuel characteristics required to ensure fuel quality. The properties listed in Table , provide the optimum engine performance. ‪

General Fuel Classification

ASTM Test Method

No. 1-D

No. 2-D#

API Gravity, @ 60F* (15.6C) ‪

D 287 ‪

40-44 ‪

34-38 ‪

Specific Gravity, @ 60 F* (15.6C) ‪

D 1298 ‪

0.806 - 0.825 ‪

0.835 - 0.855 ‪

Flash Point, F (C) Minimum ‪

D 93 ‪

100 (38) ‪

126 (52) ‪

Viscosity, Kinematic-cSt @ 104F (40C) ‪

D 445 ‪

1.3-2.4 ‪

1.9-4.1 ‪

Sulfur wt% Maximum for On-Road Use ‪

D 2622 ‪

0.05 ‪

0.05 ‪

Cloud Point F (C) ‪

D 2500 ‪

See Note ‪

See Note ‪

Cetane Number, Minimum ‪

D 613 ‪

45 ‪

45 ‪

Cetane Index, Minimum ‪

D 4737 ‪

40 ‪

40 ‪

Distillation % Vol. Recovery, F (C) ‪

D86 ‪

- ‪

- ‪

IBP, Typical* ‪

- ‪

350 (177) ‪

375 (191) ‪

10% Typical * ‪

- ‪

385 (196) ‪

430 (221) ‪

50% Typical* ‪

- ‪

425 (218) ‪

510 (256) ‪

90% Maximum* ‪

- ‪

500 (260) ‪

625 (329) ‪

90% Maximum* ‪

- ‪

500 (260) ‪

625 (329) ‪

Recovery Volume, % Minimum* ‪

- ‪

98 ‪

98 ‪

Water & Sediment, % Maximum-wt.% ‪

D 2709 ‪

0.05 ‪

0.05 ‪

Ash, % Maximum-wt.% ‪

D 482 ‪

0.01 ‪

0.01 ‪

Carbon Residue on 10%, wt%, Maximum ‪

D 524 ‪

0.15 ‪

0.35 ‪

Copper Corrosion, Maximum 3h ‪

D 130 ‪

No. 3 ‪

No. 3 ‪

Accelerated Storage Stability,Maximum* ‪

D 2274 ‪

15 mg/L ‪

15 mg/L ‪

Dupont Pad Test, Rating Maximum* ‪

TM-F21-61 ‪

7 ‪

7 ‪

Lubricity, gm, Minimum* ‪

SLWT ‪

2800 ‪

2800 ‪

Diesel Fuel Specifications







Fuel Lubricity

Fuels such as those containing kerosene and jet fuel and some low sulfur fuels have characteristics which may cause operational concerns in some engine designs. The unit fuel injection system used on all Detroit Diesel - manufactured engines has demonstrated trouble-free operation on a wide variety of fuels without the need for supplemental additives. ‪

Biodiesel Fuels

Biodiesel fuels may be produced from a wide variety of sources and may be used in all DDC engines provided (1) they are derived from soy methyl ester (SME) and/or rape methyl ester (RME) and (2) are blended to a maximum of 20% by volume in diesel fuel. The resulting blend must meet the properties listed in Table . ‪

Although such blends purport to reduce exhaust emission particulates, they increase the nitrogen oxides in engine exhaust. They also tend to have poorer thermal stability and may deteriorate engine oil TBN more rapidly than wholly petroleum-based diesel fuels. These fuel blends have not been fully evaluated relative to diesel fuel system durability or engine oil effects. ‪

Other Fuels

In addition to the diesel fuels listed in Table , customers have used other fuels successfully, including fuels marketed as premium diesel fuels, kerosene-based jet fuels, and other fuels listed in Table . These fuels have provided economic and availability advantages for some applications, particularly where 1-D type fuels are required, and may be used in all Detroit Diesel engines. These fuels should be accompanied by exhaust emission data demonstrating emission equivalency to 1-D for those engines requiring 1-D fuel. Fuel type specifications and applications are listed in Table . ‪

Property ‪

Jet A/A-1 D 1655 ‪

JP-5 ‪

JP-8 ‪

CONUS DF-1 ‪

CONUS DF-2 ‪

OCONUS DF-2 ‪

API Gravity, @ 60F (15.6C) ‪

44.3 ‪

41.1 ‪

45.6 ‪

42.3 ‪

34.2 ‪

38.5 ‪

Flash Point, F (C) ‪

37.4 (3) ‪

143.6 (62) ‪

113 (45) ‪

122 (50) ‪

165.2 (74) ‪

158 (70) ‪

Viscosity, Kin., cSt @ 405C ‪

- ‪

1.5 ‪

1.2 ‪

1.6 ‪

2.8 ‪

3.0 ‪

Cloud Point F (C) ‪

-40 (-40) ‪

-50.8 (-46) ‪

-52.6 (-47) ‪

-41.8 (-41) ‪

10.4 (-12) ‪

-2.2 (-19) ‪

Sulfur, % mass ‪

0.3 Max. ‪

0.4 Max. ‪

0.4 Max. ‪

0.05 Max. ‪

0.05 Max. ‪

0.3 Max. ‪

Cetane Number ‪

- ‪

42 ‪

45 ‪

44 ‪

47 ‪

49 ‪

Distillation % Vol. Recovery, C ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

IBP ‪

- ‪

180 ‪

157 ‪

174 ‪

190 ‪

176 ‪

10% Typical ‪

205 ‪

191 ‪

175 ‪

196 ‪

222 ‪

219 ‪

50% Typical ‪

Report ‪

215 ‪

200 ‪

219 ‪

265 ‪

365 ‪

90% Max. ‪

Report ‪

242 ‪

236 ‪

246 ‪

313 ‪

311 ‪

Final Boiling Point, Max. Temp. ‪

300 ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

- ‪

Heat Content, Btu/gal., Net ‪

123,608 ‪

125,270 ‪

123,069 ‪

125,960 ‪

131,207 ‪

127,820 ‪

Selected Typical Fuel Properties

Type ‪

NATO Spec. ‪

Mil Spec. ‪

Application ‪

JP-4 ‪

F-40 ‪

Mil-T-5624 ‪

Jet Fuel, Contains 50% Gasoline, Not Recommended ‪

JP-5 ‪

F-44 ‪

Mil-T-5624 ‪

Jet Fuel, Kerosene Based ‪

JP-8 ‪

F-34 ‪

Mil-T83133 ‪

Jet A-1 with De-icer and Corrosion Inhibitor ‪

Jet A ‪

None ‪

None ‪

Industry Standard Jet Fuel ‪

Jet A-1 ‪

F-35 ‪

None ‪

Jet Fuel, ASTM D 1655 ‪

DF-1/DF-2 ‪

F-54 ‪

VVF-800 CONUS ‪

Specified Military Use Inside Continental U.S. ‪

DF-2 ‪

F-54 ‪

VVF-800 OCONUS ‪

Specified Military Use Outside Continental U.S. ‪

Fuel Type Specifications and Applications

Lower density fuels, such as those listed in Table and "winter blended" diesel fuels, have a lower volumetric heat content than the standard 2-D fuel listed in Table , "Diesel Fuel Specifications Table." Operating with these fuels will result in reduced engine output and reduced fuel mileage, compared to standard 2-D fuel. Reductions of 5% are not unusual and may be as high as 10%. A good rule of thumb is this: The engine power is proportional to the heating value of the fuel. ‪

Lower density fuels also tend to have lower viscosity and poor lubrication characteristics. ‪

Fuel Cleanliness

Fuel should be clean and free of contamination. Storage tanks and stored fuel should be inspected regularly for dirt, water, or water-emulsion sludge, and cleaned if contaminated. Storage instability of the fuel can lead to the formation of varnish or sludge in the tank. The presence of these contaminants from storage instability must be resolved with the fuel supplier. If fuel is stored on site, the following is recommended: ‪

NOTICE:

Do not use a fuel storage tank or lines made from galvanized steel. The fuel will react chemically with the galvanized coating to form powdery flakes that will quickly clog fuel filters and cause damage to the fuel pump and injectors. ‪

  1. Keep the storage tank filler cap covered to prevent contamination by rain water.
  2. Keep the tank clean, especially around the filler cap and tap areas.
  3. Position the tank so that it tilts slightly toward the bottom drain. This will make it easier to drain accumulated water and sediment.
  4. Minimize condensation by keeping the tank reasonably filled at all times.
  5. After filling the fuel storage tank, wait a few hours before filling equipment tanks. This will allow contaminants to settle.

Cold Weather Operation

In cold weather, diesel fuel will form wax crystals that can restrict flow and clog filters. Fuel suppliers approach this problem several ways. Some provide a specially refined product, while others may use flow improving additives or winter blends. Winter blended fuel will likely contain kerosene or 1-D fuel, which provide good cloud point temperatures but will result in a lighter fuel with a lower heat content. The use of such fuels is acceptable but may result in reduced engine power and/or fuel mileage. ‪

Fuel Additives

Detroit Diesel engines are designed to operate satisfactorily using a wide range of diesel fuels. Some fuels containing performance additives are marketed as premium diesel fuels. Detroit Diesel engines do not require such fuels; however, they may be used at the customer's discretion. ‪

Water Contamination

Some fuel additives provide temporary benefit when fuel is contaminated with water. They do not negate good fuel handling practices, however. Where water contamination is likely, the fuel system should be equipped with a fuel/water separator, which should be serviced regularly. In environments where microbe growth is a concern, a fungicide such as Bioborr JF (or equivalent) may be used. Microbial activity may be confirmed with commercially available test kits. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for treatment. Avoid the use of fungicides containing halogenated compounds, since these may cause fuel system corrosion. ‪

Bioborr is a registered trademark of U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation. ‪

When small amounts of water are present, supplemental additives containing methyl carbitol or butyl cellusolve are effective. Follow the manufacturer's instructions. Because of its negative effect on fuel lubricity, the use of isopropyl alcohol is no longer recommended.

Prohibited Fuel Additives

The following fuel additives are not allowed: ‪

Used Lubricating Oil: Detroit Diesel specifically prohibits the use of drained lubricating oil in diesel fuel. Used lubricating oil contains combustion acids and particulate materials which erode injector components, resulting in loss of power and increased exhaust emissions. In addition, the use of drained lubricating oil will increase maintenance requirements due to filter plugging and combustion deposits. Refer to the section on "Waste Oil Disposal and Rerefined Oils" for recommendations on proper used oil disposal. ‪

Gasoline: The addition of gasoline to diesel fuel will create a serious fire hazard. The presence of gasoline in diesel fuel will reduce fuel cetane number and increase combustion temperatures. Tanks which contain such mixtures should be drained and cleaned as soon as possible. ‪

Detroit Diesel Corporation will not be responsible for any detrimental effects which it determines resulted from the use of used lubricating oil or gasoline in the diesel fuel. ‪

Waste Oil Disposal and Re-refined Oils

With over one billion gallons of waste oil generated annually in the U.S. alone, disposal of waste oil has become a serious environmental concern. Re-refining waste oils provides an environmentally viable way of handling this material. Detroit Diesel favors the recycling of waste oil and permits the use of rerefined oils in all engine product lines, provided the rerefined oil meets the SAE Viscosity and API specifications previously mentioned. ‪

Consideration for the disposal of waste oil should begin when negotiating the purchase of new oil. Oil supplier selection criteria should include a proposal for handling waste oil. It is important to know exactly how the oil will be disposed of since it is the generator, not the hauler, that is ultimately responsible for its proper disposal. ‪